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Glossary of Terms
A hole or an opening through which light is admitted.

Condenser Distance/Condenser Working Distance
The distance between the sample and the exit lens of the condenser.

As used in this catalog, a chuck refers to a heating and cooling plate with a series of vacuum grooves and holes on the surface which can be used to hold the sample to the plate.

A standard lens mount often used for connecting cameras to microscopes.

Dual Heater
A dual heater is an Instec design which uses two heaters, one above the sample volume, and the other below the sample volume. This design allows for the near elimination of vertical thermal gradients across the sample. It may also be employed to produce a well regulated thermal gradient, or a constant thermal gradient across the sample volume.

Gas Defrost
The use of a dry gas to clear or prevent the condensation of moisture on viewing windows during low temperature operation.

Gas Purge
A sample chamber with an inlet for introducing gas such that the chamber atmosphere can be controlled. 

Gas Tight
As used in this catalog, gas tight refers to closed sample chamber.

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE is one of the leading standards maintaining organizations in the world. Used in this catalog to indicate when a communication port adheres to the IEEE-488 communication standard.

ITO (Indium Tin Oxide)
Indium tin oxide (ITO, or tin-doped indium oxide), a mixture of indium(III) oxide (In2O3) and tin(IV) oxide (SnO2), is an electrically conductive material. It is transparent in thin layers.

Liquid Crystal Cell
Typically a structure composed of two flat pieces of glass with a small (usually on the order of a few to several tens of microns) gap between which filled with liquid crystal. The inner surfaces of the glass pieces are normally coated with ITO allowing an electrical potential difference to be applied and may also be coated with an alignment layer (e.g. a rubbed polyimide) which aligns the liquid crystal molecules at the surfaces. In this catalog, LC cells refer to unfilled or empty LC cells.

NPT - National Pipe Thread
National Pipe Thread is a U.S. standard for tapered (NPT) or straight (NPS) threads used to join pipes and fittings.

Peltier/Thermo-electric Cooler
Thermoelectric cooling uses the Peltier effect to create a heat flux between the junction of two different types of materials. A Peltier cooler, heater, or thermoelectric heat pump is a solid-state active heat pump which transfers heat from one side of the device to the other side against a temperature gradient (from cold to hot), with consumption of electrical energy.

PID - Proportional-Integral-Derivative
A proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop feedback mechanism widely used in industrial control systems.
As used in this catalog, a plate refers to a heating and cooling product with a flat surface which does not include a viewing aperture or vacuum holes and grooves.

RTD - Resistance Temperature Detector
Resistance thermometer, also called resistance temperature detector (RTD), is a temperature sensor that exploit the predictable change in electrical resistance of some materials with changing temperature.

In telecommunications, RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is a standard for serial binary data signals connecting between a DTE (Data terminal equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuit-terminating Equipment). It is commonly used in computer serial ports.

As used in this catalog, a stage refers to a heating and cooling product which includes sample chamber with a viewing aperture for transmitted light.

Temperature Accuracy
Accuracy is the degree to which a temperature measurement of a system agrees with the true temperature of the system.

Temperature Gradient
The temperature gradient, or thermal gradient is a measure of how the temperature of an object, a system, or a volume of space changes with respect to position.

Temperature Stability
Stability, as used in this catalog or in reference to Instec products, refers to the repeatability of a measured temperature value of a system with respect to time. For instance a stable temperature indicates that the temperature of a system is constant, or unchanging with respect to time.

Temperature Precision
Precision, also called reproducibility or repeatability, is the degree to which multiple temperature measurements of a system show the same or similar results.

Temperature Resolution
Resolution is the minimum temperature difference that can be measured or controlled by a system.

Temperature Uniformity
Uniformity, as used in this catalog or in reference to Instec products, refers to a small or zero change in a measured temperature value of a system with respect to position in that system. For instance, a high uniform temperature would indicate that the measured temperature of a system is the same regardless of the position in the system where the measurement was taken.

In electronics, thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor and can also be used as a means to convert thermal potential difference into electric potential difference.

Vacuum Tight
Vacuum tight, as used in this catalog or in reference to Instec products, refers to the ability of a system, such as a hot and cold stage to minimally impact (with normal use) the vacuum of a chamber when introduced into the chamber. It can also refer to the ability of a sample stage to maintain a vacuum.

Working Distance/Objective Working Distance
The distance between the front surface of the objective and the in focus specimen.
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